Sylhet • Habiganj • Maulvibazar • Sunamganj
Sylhet ( previously Srihôtto ; Sylheti : Silôt ; Bengali : ????? , Silet ) is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh . It is the capital of Sylhet Division ( ????? ????? Silet Bibhag ) and Sylhet District ( ????? ???? Silet Jela ). Located on the northern bank of the Surma River and surrounded by the Jaintia , Khasi and Tripura hills, Sylhet is nestled among picturesque tea plantations and lush green tropical forests.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and Climate
- 3 Civic administration
- 4 Land and Economy
- 5 Demographics & Culture
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Notable personalities
- 9 Places of interest
- 9.1 Historical
- 9.2 Museum
- 9.3 Natural
- 9.4 Urban
- 9.5 Cityscape
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Historians believe that Sylhet or, as it was known in ancient times, Sreehatta ("enriched marketplace"), was an expanded commercial center from the ancient period, which explains its original namesake. During this time, Sylhet was probably inhabited by Indo-Aryan Hindu Bengalis , though ethnically much of the population would also have been of Munda , Assamese , and Dravidian ancestry. It has also been suggested that Ancient Bengali Kingdom of Harikela was situated in modern Sylhet.
In the ancient and early medieval period, Sylhet was ruled primarily by local chieftains. There is evidence to suggest that the Maharaja Sri Chandra , of northern Bengal , conquered Bengal in the 10th century, although this is a much disputed topic amongst Bangladeshi historians and archaeologists. This was a period of relative prosperity and there is little evidence to suggest this was marred by wars or feuds. Sylhet was certainly known by the rest of India , and is even referred to in the ancient Hindu sacred Tantric text, the Shakti Sangama Tantra , as 'Silhatta'. The last chieftain to reign Sylhet was Gaur Govinda .
The 14th century marked the beginning of Islamic influence in Sylhet. In the early 14th Century, a Muslim saint by the name of Shah Jalal arrived in Sylhet from delhi with the instructions of aiding Sikhander Khan Gazi in defeating Raja Gaur Govinda. Sikhander Khan Gazi was the dircect nephew of sultan Firoz Shah of delhi . Under the spiritual leadership of Shah Jalal and his 360 companions the Hindus were routed and they began to spread Islam. He died in Sylhet about the year 1250; His tomb is located inside the parameter of the mosque complex. Even till today shah jalal remains revered and visitors arrive from all over Bangladesh to pay homage.
Shah Jalal Mazar (Tomb)
Saints such as Shah Jalal and Shah Paran were responsible for the conversion of most of the populace from Hinduism to Islam. Shortly thereafter, Sylhet became a centre of Islam in Bengal . During this era of Muslim rule, Sylhet was often referred to as 'Jalalabad' in official documents and historical accounts, such as that of Ibn Battuta .
In the late 18th century, the British East India Company became interested in Sylhet and saw it as an area of strategic importance in the war against Burma . Sylhet gradually was absorbed into British control and administration and was governed as a part of Bengal . After the British administrative reorganization of India , Sylhet was eventually incorporated into Assam . It remained a part of Assam for the rest of the era of British rule . In 1947, following a referendum, almost all of erstwhile Sylhet became a part of East Pakistan , barring the Karimganj subdivision which was incorporated into the new Indian state] of Assam . In 1971, Sylhet became part of the newly formed independent country of Bangladesh .
Important historical places include the Stone Monument of Jaintapur, Mound of Gharduara, Gaiyabi Mosque, tombs of Shah Jalal and Shah Paran , Abu Torab Mosque, Nawabi Masque, Mughal Mosque at Akhalia, temple of Sri Chaitannya Dev in Dhaka Dakshin, the Thin Mandir (trio temple) and the ancient Pargana of Kanihati.
Sylhet and Sylhetis all over the world have been contributing to society in their countries and causes far and wide. Sylhetis everywhere have formed Sylheti associations or 'Sreehatta Sammelani' in different parts of the world. In India major cities like Delhi , Mumbai , Kolkata and Bangalore have formed Sreehatta Sammelans, thereby bringing their own people closer and maintaining cultural links and integrity.
There is a friendship link with the Sylhet region of Bangladesh rather than full town twinning. A friendship link is less formal and is community led. The link was established in 1988 when the District Council supported a housing project in Sylhet as part of the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless. Sylhet was chosen because it is the area of origin for the largest ethnic minority group in St Albans .
Geography and Climate
Sylhet is located in north-eastern Bangladesh at 24°32'0?N, 91°52'0?E, on the northern bank of the Surma River .
The physiography of Sylhet comprises mainly of hill soils, encompassing a few large depressions known locally as "beels" which can be mainly classified as oxbow lakes , caused by tectonic subsidence primarily during the earthquake of 1762.
Sylhet experiences a hot, wet and humid tropical climate. The city is within the monsoon climate zone, with annual average highest temperatures of 23°c (Aug-Oct) and average lowest temperature of 7°c (Jan). Nearly 80% of the annual average rainfall of 3,334 mm occurs between May and September.
Sylhet (City) consists of 27 wards and 210 mahallas. The area of the town is 57.64 km² . It has a population of 369425; male 54.68%, female 45.32%; density of population is 11,936 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 66.9%. The rapid growth and expansion of Sylhet occurred during the colonial period. Sylhet Municipality was established in 1878. A devastated earthquake demolished almost the entire town on 12 June 1897. On the wreckage a modern and European model new town was built later on. Many new roads were constructed in late 1890s. Sylhet became really connected to the other parts of the country with the establishment of an extension line of Asam-Bengal Railway in 1912-15. From the very beginning of the 20th century, importance of Sylhet town increased with the establishment of tea industry. In 1950s and 1960s, rapid urbanisation took place in the town by the expatriate Syleties and still the process is going on. At present, Sylhet is the district-headquarter as well as the divisional headquarter.
Land and Economy
Typical tea garden in Sylhet.
The city is noted for its picturesque rolling hills, such as the Jaintia and Khasia hills. Sylhet is also famed for its tea gardens, most notably those in the Sreemangal area. The construction industry in Sylhet is currently booming with many shopping centres and apartments being built to luxurious standards, funded by foreign investment from Sylhetis living abroad. As a result property prices are rising. Many new hotels and restaurants, often themed on those found in London eg. London Fried Chicken (LFC), have also been established to cater to the visiting Sylheti expatriate population and the growing Sylheti middle classes. More than eight out of 10 Indian restaurants in the UK are owned by Bangladeshis, the vast majority of whom - 95% - come from Sylhet. In 1946, there were 20 restaurants or small cafes owned by Sylheti Bengalis; in 1960 there were 300; and by 1980, more than 3,000. Now, according to the Curry Club of Great Britain , there are 8,500 Indian restaurants, of which roughly 7,200 are Bengali. Bangladeshis constitute the 7th largest foreign group in the UK and the 3rd largest in London . An awful lot of chicken tikka masala , apparently now Britain 's national dish, has its origins with chefs from this region.
The amount of idle money lying with the commercial banks in Sylhet as deposits is about 4,000 crore taka, which is not common in the rest of Bangladesh .
During the fiscal year of 2005-06 the flow of foreign Remittances rose by 25 percent to $4.8 billion which have been sent mostly by expatriates of Sylheti origin in the UK . That amount is expect to increase to $5.5 billion in 2007 with the government's attention toward supervising and monitoring banks.
The Bangladesh government has taken steps to set up a special Export Processing Zone(EPZ) in Sylhet in order to attract foreign investors, notably non-resident Bangladeshis living abroad. Such include people from Sylheti origin that reside in the UK . The plan comes as an initiative toward stimulating the ongoing investment that has already taken place in Sylhet as well as providing a basis towards long-term investment to turn Sylhet into a major economic hub.
Investments by British-Bangladeshis led the way for two additional privately owned airlines, Royal Bengal Airlines and United Airways (Bangladesh) , to launch services in 2007. The investment is regarded to serve the Sylheti population living in the UK .Air Sylhet is another British-Bangladeshi owned UK airline that hopes to launch services in 2007.
Demographics & Culture
The Sylheti language ( Silôti or Sileti ) is spoken throughout Sylhet Division, with some minor dialectal variations. Sylheti is an Eastern Indic language closely related to Bengali (Bangla) , Chittagonian , and Assamese (Ôxômiya) . Most Sylhetis are at least bilingual to some degree, as they are taught Bengali at all levels of education in Bangladesh . Sylheti is also the dominant dialect of Bengali among the inhabitants of the Barak Valley in India , centered around Cachar district in Assam . The largest Sylheti-dominated city in India is Silchar , with significant Sylheti-speaking populations in Agartala , Delhi , Guwahati , Mumbai , Shillong and Kolkata .
Sylhet is the home of most Bangladeshi migrants to the United Kingdom and the rest of the world. Certain parts of the United Kingdom are heavily populated with people from Sylhet, most notably the East End of London , especially the boroughs of Newham and Tower Hamlets , which includes Brick Lane , a famous street dubbed " Banglatown " for its large Bangladeshi, almost entirely Sylheti, population. The town of Sylhet is twinned with St Albans , United Kingdom .
Another area where Sylhetis have remained as a large group abroad is New York City in the United States . Although there are many of them living in Manhattan and Brooklyn , Sylhetis are mostly found in the borough of Queens . Most of them live in areas like Astoria , Long Island City , and Jackson Heights . Hillside Ave. in Jamaica, Queens has seen a tremendous amount of newly opened Bangladeshi resturaunts mainly by Sylhetis and a great influx of such residents attracted by the real estate boom there.
As so many Sylhetis are resident abroad, Sylhet has a major flow of foreign currency from non-resident Bangladeshis; many Sylheti families' sole source of income comes from relatives abroad.
Given its unique cultural and economic development, and linguistic differences (Greater Sylhot region was a part of Assam for much of the British Raj in comparison to the rest of Bangladesh ), and given that Sylhet has, for most of its recent history, been a region of a larger entity (ie, Assam, Bengal, Bangladesh), Sylheti's have a strong attachment to their regional identity. This is illustrated by the creation by British Sylheti's of The Campaign Against Monica Ali's Film Brick Lane, as many Sylhetis objected to Monica Ali's (a Non-Sylheti Bengali) portrayal of them in her novel.
Many Sylhetis regard themselves as fiercely proud of their own language, family-orientated community culture and conservative practice of Islam , though not all Sylhetis are Muslim. This is illustrated in the court action taken against the makers of the Hason Raja movie, he being a Sylheti cultural icon, as the film depicts him as a lecherous fellow who forsakes his family and uses obscene language. The film was also shot in Bengali rather than Hason Raja's native Sylheti language.
Sylheti attachment to their regional identity also continues in the efforts of many Sylhetis to keep marital relationships within the same regional cultural background.
Main terminal building of Osmani International.
Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws are the main mode of transport for the inhabitants of the city, with close to 80,000 rickshaws running each day.Sylhet is well connected by highways and railway links to Chittagong , Dhaka as well as other parts of Sylhet. Highway links to the India have been established though Asian highway.The Sylhet Railway Station is the main railway station providing trains on national routes operated by the state-run Bangladesh Railway.The city of Sylhet is served by Osmani International Airport . It is Bangladesh's third busiest airport and has flight services to Abu Dhabi , Dhaka , Doha , Dubai , Kuwait , and London . Work started in 2006 to upgrade the airport to international standards including a new terminal building, a Jetway, a taxiway, and a new exapnsion project of the runway to allow for landing of wide-bodied aircraft.
Sylhet city is served by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education,Sylhet & famous educational institutes like Shahjalal University of Science and Technology , Sylhet Medical College , M C College etc.Other notable educational institutions are Jalalabad Cantonment public School & College , Sylhet Cadet College ,Sylhet Government College,Sylhet Government Women College,Blue Bird High School ,Sylhet Government Pilot High School,Agragami Government Girls High School.etc
Sirajul Islam ( Bir Protik )
Places of interest
Sylhet city has couple of interesting places to attract tourist. Sylhet is mejor destination for tourist.Some important places listed here.
- The Shrine of Hazrat Shah Jalal (R)
- The Shrine of Hajrat Shah Paran (R)
- Shahi Eidgah
- Gour Gobinda Fort
- Osmani Museum
- Museum of Raja 's
- Tilagorh Eco Park (Alutol)
- Lakkatura,Malnichara & Tarapur Tea Estates.
- Parjatan Corporation,Sylhet.( Resort )
- Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
- MC College .
- Dream Land ( Theme Park )
- Adventure World ( Amusement Park )
- ZAK Estate ( Park and Resort )
- Osmani Shishu Udyan ( Park )
- Kean Bridge & Watch Of Ali Amjad.
Blue Water Shopping City
Sylhet Street Scene
Al Hamra Shopping City
Sylhet Millenium Mall
Sylhet District ( sylhet division) with an area of 3490.40 sq km, is bounded by the Khasia-Jainta hills of India on the north, maulvi bazar district on the south, Kachhar and Karimganj districts of India on the east, sunamganj and habiganj districts on the west. Annual maximum temperature is 33.2°C and minimum is 13.6°C; annual rainfall 3334 mm. Main river is surma and kushiyara . haor s 82; Shingua Beel (12.65 sq km) and Chatla Beel (11.86 sq km) are notable; reserve forest 236.42 sq km. Parts of Khasia and Jainta hills are included in this district. Notable tilas and hills are Jaintapur (54 m), Sary Tila (92 m), Lalkhan Tila (135 m), Dhaka Daksmin Tila series (77.7 m).
Sylhet (Town) consists of 27 wards and 210 mahallas. The area of the town is 10.49 sq km. It has a population of 285308; male 54.68%, female 45.32%; density of population is 27198 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 66.9%. The rapid growth and expansion of Sylhet occurred during the colonial period. Sylhet Municipality was established in 1878. A devastated earthquake demolished almost the entire town on 12 June 1897. On the wreckage a modern and European model new town was built later on. Many new roads were constructed in late 1890s. Sylhet became really connected to the other parts of the country with the establishment of an extension line of Asam-Bengal Railway in 1912-15. From the very beginning of the 20th century, importance of Sylhet town increased with the establishment of tea industry. In 1950s and 1960s, rapid urbanisation took place in the town by the expatriate Syleties and still the process is going on. At present, Sylhet is the district-headquarter as well as the divisional headquarter.
Administration Sylhet district was established on 3 January 1782. Until 1878, Sylhet was under the jurisdiction of dhaka division. In the same year, Sylhet was included in the newly created Asam Province . Up to 1947 (excepting the Banga Bhanga period of 1905-1911) it remained a part of Asam. In 1947, as a result of a referendum, it was attached to the East Pakistan and was included in the Chittagong Division. The greater Sylhet was divided into four new districts viz Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj and Maulvi Bazar in 1983-84. On 1 August 1995 Sylhet was declared as the 6th division of the country consisting of the four districts of the greater Sylhet. Sylhet district consists of 11 upazilas, 2 municipalities, 37 wards, 233 mahallas, 98 union parishads, 1693 mouzas and 3249 villages. The upazilas are balaganj , beanibazar , bishwanath , companiganj , fenchuganj , golabganj , gowainghat , jaintiapur , kanaighat , sylhet sadar and zakiganj .
Archaeological heritage Stone monument of Jaintapur, Mound of Gharduara, Gaiyabi Mosque, tombs of Hazrat shah jalal (r) and shah paran (r) , Abu Torab Mosque, Nawabi Masque, Mughal Mosque at Akhalia, Dhaka Dakshmin Temple, Tin Mandir (trio temple).
Historical events Sylhet is an ancient settlement area. It was known as Jalalabad in Sultani period. From the Pashchimbagh brass plate engraved by the Maharaja Shreechandra in 10th century, it could be assumed that he conquered Sylhet. Many historians think that Sylhet or Sreehatta (enriched market place) was an expanded commercial centre from the ancient period. A large number of Bengalis migrated to Sylhet. In the 14th century, Muslim saint from Yemen Hazrat Shah Jalal (R) triumphed Sylhet and began to spread Islam. The Pathan valiant Khawja Osman fought against the Mughal with the help of local feudal. During the sepoy revolt in 1857 the British traders defeated the mutinous. The Nankar revolt is another important event in the history of Sylhet. The Nankars were the serf of the zamindars. As a result of Nankar and other similar revolts the Nankar system was abolished in 1950.
In 1927, when Sylhet was still a part of the Asam, the politicians (MLAs) got the right of speaking in Bangla in the Provincial Council. In favour of declaring Bangla as the state-language an editorial was published in the local Al Islah after the emergence of Pakistan in 1947.
Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site 9, mass grave 13, memorial monument 14 and memorial statue 1.
Religious institutions Most noted tombs of Hazrat Shah Jalal (R) and Shah Paran (R), Syed Osmani Bagdadi (R), Jinda Pir, Fakir Kanai Shah and Shitalang Shah.
Population 2569783; male 50.75%, female 49.25%; Muslim 91.96%, Hindu 7.80%, Christian 0.09%, and others 0.15%; ethnic nationals: Khasi (Khasia), Manipuri and Patra (Pathar).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 44.5%; male 50.6%, female 38.4%. Educational institutions: university 1, medical college 3, polytechnic institute 1, PTI 1, college 35, vocational training institute 1, high school 218, primary school 1320, madrasa 148.
Newspapers and periodicals Yugveri (1930), Al-Islah (1931), Daily Jalalabadi, Daily Sylhet Bani, Daily Ajker Sylhet; extinct: Sreehatta Prokash (19th century), Paridarshak (19th century), Sreehatta Mihir (19th century), Weekly Chronicle (1900), Janashakti (1921).
Cultural organisation Club 110, public library 38, museum 3, theatre group 28, theatre stage 4, literary society 18, women's organisation 15, community centre 5.
Main occupations Agriculture 30.82%, agricultural labourer 15.59%, non agricultural labourer 7.33%, commerce 12.2%, transport 2.21%, construction 1.66%, house renting out 3.11%, fishing 3.6%, others 23.48%.
Land use Cultivable land 66%, fallow land 34%; single crop 54%, double crop 36% and treble crop 10%.
Land control Land owner 49.26%, landless 50.74%.
Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is around Tk 7500 to 9000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, mustered, betel nut.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, orange, litchi,.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 110, cattle farm 112, dairy 12, poultry 228, hatchery 8.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 794 km, railways 275 km; airways connections with Dhaka and abroad.
Traditional transport Palanquin and horse carriage (extinct).
Manufactories Notable manufactories include tea processing industries, Fenchuganj Fertiliser Factory, LP Gas Plant.
Cottage industries Bamboo work, cane work, Shital Pati (one kind of handmade mat made of cane).
Mineral resources natural gas , crude oil.
Main hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 152, fair 14.
Main exports Paddy; tea, betel nut, natural gas, fertiliser.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac , asa , grameen bank , CARE.
Health centres Hospital 3, upazila health complex 10, union health and family planning centre 68, satellite clinic 17. [Ashfaq Hossain]