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Nawabganj District ( rajshahi division) with an area of 1744.33 sq km, is bounded by West Bengal of India on the north, south and west, rajshahi and naogaon districts on the east. The district lies under barind tract and consists of diaras and charlands (sandbars develop in riverbed). Main rives are ganges , mahananda , Pagla, Moraganga and punarbhaba . Beel Bhatia, Beel Choral, Beel Hogla, Beel Singra, Sukrabari Damos, Maricha Dara, Beel Putimari, Beel Anal, Kumiradaha are the noted depressions. Annual average temperature: maximum 37.8°C, minimum 11.2°C; annual rainfall 1862 mm.

Nawabganj (Town) consists of 15 wards and 70 mahallas. It has an area of 46.26 sq km. Nawabganj municipality was established in 1903. The town has a population of 153252; male 48.37% and female 51.63%; population density is 3313 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 41.2%. The town has two dakbungalows, one circuit house, one officers' club, one BDR Camp, one Mango Research Centre and one horticulture centre.

Administration Until 1947, Nawabganj was a thana under the district of Maldah ( India ). At the time of partition, it was upgraded to a Subdivision under Rajshahi district and again upgraded to a district in 1984. The district consists of 3 municipalities, 33 wards, 134 mahallas, 5 upazilas, 45 union parishads, 830 mouzas and 1136 villages. The upazilas are bholahat , gomastapur , nachole , nawabganj sadar , shibganj ; municipalities are Nawabganj Sadar, Shibganj, Rohanpur.

Archaeological heritage and relics Chota Sona Mosque (1493-1519), Darashbari Mosque (1479), Rajbari (palace), Baragharia Kacharibari (revenue office), Chapai Mosque, Naoda Stupa (Buddhist monument), Jora Math (twin monastery), Nachole Palace, etc.

Historical events Indigo Resistance Movement lead by Dewanatullah Chowdhury in 1830-35 and Nachole Krishak Andolan (peasants' movement) organised by ila mitra in 1949.

Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Nawabganj Shmashan (crematorium of Hindus), Rehaichar, Rohanpur Station Para, Satiar Bazaar (Bholahat) and Jadunagar (Bholahat); mass grave: near Sona Mosque, Shamsanghat, Boalia, Islampur and Gomostapur Fakirpara; memorial monument: BDR (Bangladesh Rifles) compound, near Sona Mosque and premises of Chatrajitpur School & College.

Population 1419534; male 50.12%, female 49.88%; Muslim 94.27%, Hindu 4.68%, Christian 0.23% and 0.82%.

Religious institutions Mosque 1,135, temple 50 and church 5.

Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 23.8%; male 28.5%, female 19.1%. Educational institutions: government college 3, private college 40, technical institute 2, madrasa 97, government secondary school 4, private secondary school 171, junior high school 36, government primary school 370, private primary school 282, primary education training institute 1, vocational training institute 1, and horticulture research and training centre 1. Noted educational institutions: Harimohan Government High School (1895), Bholahat Rameshwar Pilot High School (1911), Adina Fazlul Haque College (1938), Nawabganj Government College (1955), Nawabganj Alia Madrasa ( Kamil ) (1964), Rohanpur Yeasuf Ali College (1967), Nawabganj Government Mohila College (1966), Kansat High School (1917), Dadanchal HM High School (1919), Kansat Soleman Degree College (1968).

Newspapers and periodicals Chapai Sangbad, Nawabganj Sangbad, Mahananda, Simanta Kagaj, Gaur Sangbad and Dainik Nawab; extinct: Falguni (1960), Alor Pathe (1962), Nawabganj Samoyikee (1964), Nawabganj Barta (1987), Pakshik Mahananda (1988), Protibha Barta (1989), Anya Chokhe Vinna Sware (1989), Rakter Siri Baya (1990), Agneya Giri (1991), Sangbedan (1992), Baishakhi (1995), Bir Barta (1995) and Nawabganj Kanthaswar (1997).

Cultural organisations Club 179, public Library 5, theatre stage 4, theatre group 10, literary society 5, women's organisation 5, cinema hall 12, community centre 3, shilpakola academy 1 and auditorium 6.

Main occupations Agriculture 34.07%, commerce 16.6%, service 4.01%, agricultural labourer 24.31%, wage labourer 5.39%, construction 2.57% and others 13.05%.

Land use Total cultivable land 132354 hectares, fallow land 12899 hectares. Single crop 46%, double crop 45% and triple crop land 9%; cultivable land under irrigation 60%. Mango gardens occupy 6690 hectares.

Land control Among the peasants 35% are landless, 44% marginal, 27% intermediate and 4% rich; cultivable land per head 0.07 hectare.

Value of land The market value of the first grade is Tk. 8500 to 10000 per 0.01 hectare.

Main crops Paddy, jute, sugarcane, wheat, betel leaf, oil seeds, pulses.

Extinct and nearly extinct crops Indigo, koda , maara (one kind of pulse), china (common millet).

Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, litchi, black berry, palm, coconut, watermelon and boroi .

Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 2, dairy 142, poultry 39.

Communication facilities Roads: pucca 286.12 km, semi pucca 2006.81 km; railways 51.20 km; waterways 69 nautical mile.

Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.

Manufactories Silk mill, textile mill, cold storage and aluminium factory.

Cottage industries About 6500 cottage industries including silk, weaving, copper, bell-metal and brass works; nakshi kantha ; decorated shika (hanging rope-shelf); potteries; hand-fans; bamboo and cane-works, etc.

Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 140, fair 25.

Main exports Mango, jackfruit, betel leaf, sugarcane, date molasses, silk sari, copper, bell-metal & brass work.

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are CARE, brac , asa , proshika , IDE, DASCO, ccdb , nijera kari , thengamara mahila sabuj sangha (TMSS), Trinamul, Vision, Proyash, Manobic Unnayan Society, Swanirvar Artha-Samajik Unnayan Sangstha, Kolyani Mohila Sangsad, Amnura Santal Mission, BIKE, BISE, BIDOS, BARIO, etc.

Health centres District sadar hospital 1, upazila health complex 5, health and family planning centre 45, chest disease and TB clinic 1, diabetic hospital (private) 1, heart foundation (private) 1, maternity care and child welfare centre 1.
[Mazharul Islam Taru]

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