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Chittagong


Chittagong (Bengali: ?????????, Chôttogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. It is located in the Chittagong District of Chittagong Division, in the southeastern portion of the country near Myanmar (Burma). Its longitude is 91°49'30.65"E and latitude is 22°19'49.41"N. The city was built on the banks of the Karnaphuli River, which ends nearby, in the Bay of Bengal. Chittagong has a population of 3.9 million,[1] and is constantly growing. It is known as one of the cleanest cities of Bangladesh.[citation needed]
The largest sea port in the country, Chittagong is the main route for almost all of Bangladesh's imports and exports, and generates a huge amount of revenue each year, attracting many investors internationally.[citation needed] Its harbour also contains extensively developed port facilities, and is particularly suitable for ocean steamers.
Chittagong is also Bangladesh's commercial and manufacturing centre, and home to the country's largest companies. Notably, two large eco-parks catering to ecologists and forestry-related genetic science have been opened recently in neighbouring Sitakunda and Bashkhali.
Contents
1 History
2 Geography and climate
3 Civic Administration
4 People and Culture
5 Economy and Development
6 Chittagonian
7 Main sights
o 7.1 Main Attractions Gallery
8 Transport
o 8.1 Ground
o 8.2 Railway
o 8.3 Air
9 See also
10 References History
Chittagong has been a sea port since ancient times. Arabs traded with the port from the 9th century AD. The Chittagong region was under the kingdom of Arakan during sixth and seventh centuries. Before Muslim rule, Chittagong had been either under the control of the Arakans or under the kings of Burma. Sultan Fakruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340. After the defeat of Sultan Giasuddin Mahmud Shah in the hands of Sher Shah in1538, the Arakanese again captured Chittagong. From this time onward until its conquest by the Mughals this region was under the control of the Portuguese and the Magh pirates. The Mughal Commandar Bujurg Umed Khan expelled the Portuguese from the area in 1666 and established Mughal rule there. The Mughals renamed Chittagong as Islamabad.
On 18th April 1930, the revolutionaries looted the Chittagong armoury under the leadership of Mastarda Surya Sen. During this time the leaders of the women revolutionaries were Pritilata Waddedar, Bina Das, Lila Ray, Kalpana Dutta etc. In 1971, The Declaration of Independence of Bangladesh was announced from Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra located at Kalurghat, Chittagong.
The explorer Ibn Battuta passed through Chittagong during his travels.
Geography and climate


Satellite view of Chittagong city.
Chittagong is located at 22°22'0?N, 91°48'0?E on the banks of the Karnaphuli River. It has a total area of 157 square kilometers (61 sq mi). The city is known for its vast hilly terrain that stretches throughout the entire district and eventually into India. However, Chittagong does not contain any natural lakes but has artificial ones.
Civic Administration


Chittagong City Hall Building
Chittagong is a Divisional Headquarter for the Chittagong Division. The Divisional Commissioner is the Highest Ranking Government Official and is the chief coordinator of all 11 Districts. He is assisted with 3 Additional Divisional Commissioners. The Chittagong District has a District Commissioner. The city areas are divided into several wards and mahallas, under the jurisdiction of the Chittagong City Corporation.
People and Culture


Overhead view of Chittagong.
The people of the city are diverse and multi-ethnic, and the native Bengali and Tibeto-Burman populations have had significant influence from Arab, Afghan, and Mughal traders and settlers, all of whom had travelled in the city after arriving on its shores many hundreds of years ago. The descendants of Portuguese settlers, known as the Firingi, also continue to live in Chittagong, as Catholic Christians, in the old Portuguese enclave of Paterghatta.
Chittagong is also home to several of the most renowned universities of Bangladesh, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), the International Islamic University Chittagong, the Chittagong University, established in 1966, Southern University Bangladesh, Mehedibagh,Chittagong established in the year 1998, the Chittagong College being notable examples. It also contains many madrasas (Islamic educational centres) within its borders.
Economy and Development


Port of Chittagong
The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of ready made garments, knitwear, frozen food, jute and jute goods, leather and leather goods, tea, and chemical products. There is also a large trade by country boats, bringing chiefly cotton, rice, spices, sugar and tobacco. Ship breaking was introduced to the area in 1969. This industry is concentrated at Fauzdarhat, a 16 kilometers (10 mi) long beach 20 kilometers (12 mi) north-west of Chittagong. Poor environmental standards produce unsafe labour conditions for ship-breaking workers and release toxins such as asbestos and PCBs into the environment.[2] Chittagong is home to a large number of industries from small to heavy. It has automobile industries, refinery, pharmaceutical plants, chemical plants, export processing zones, steel meel etc. The privately owned Korean export processing zone is also located in Chittagong.
The city of Chittagong had been prolongued with neglect by the Bangladeshi government until the turn of the century when exports grew by 21.13% to an all time high of $8.02 billion.[3]. Chittagong is the site of Bangladesh's busiest port which handles 80% of all Bangladeshi imports and exports. The strategic location of the port has allowed for interest by investors to help improve the city.
Agrabad is the chief downtown of Chittagong along with a few other minor areas. Many companies like HSBC have their offices stationed in the city. Numerous investments have allowed for a construction boom similar to Dhaka. Over the years, scores of hotels, shopping centers, and other modern buildings have sprang up to change the face of the city. Some in particular include the 2 star Asian SR Hotel and 4 star Penninsula Chittagong.[4]. Ongoing developments include an 18 story shopping cum commercial complex named Akhtaruzzaman Centre[5] and a Chittagong World Trade Centre[6].
According to CityMayors Statistics[1] Chittagong registered a GDP of $16 billion in 2005 with an annual growth rate of 6.3%. It is estimated that in 2020 the GDP of Chittagong will be $39 billion.[7].
Chittagonian
Many Chittagong natives speak Chittagonian (?????????? Chatgaiã), an Indo-European language of the Eastern Indic group. Many speakers consider their language to be a dialect of standard Bengali, the official language of Bangladesh. However, the two languages are not mutually intelligible, meaning that those who only know how to speak Standard Bengali will not understand Chittagonian speakers, and vice versa - normally the metric for languagehood among linguists. There is, however, a dialect continuum between Chittagonian and neighboring dialects of Bengali, meaning that speakers of each neighboring dialect can largely understand each other, while speakers of more distant dialects cannot. Chittagonian has approximately 14 million speakers.[8]
Main sights
The main attractions of Chittagong are:
The Green City of Bangladesh with lots of Hills on it's heart, some of those are hot-spots such as DC Hill, Batali Hill, Forest Hill.
Patenga Beach: Sandy beach at the meeting place of the roaring sea and the river Karnaphuli. It looks more beautiful from Navel Academy Road which is just Beside the Shah Amanat International Airport.
Foy's Lake: Set amidst panoramic surroundings, this ideal spot for outings and picnics is thronged by thousands of visitors. This Lake has been created in the natural environment in 1924 by the initiative of the then Asam-Bengal Railway. This lake has been created by building a dam based on a plan by an English engineer Mr. Foy. Now an amusement park is established there.
Shrine of Baizid Bostami: This holy shrine attracts a large number of visitors and pilgrims. At its base there is a large pond with several hundred tortoises floating in the water. According to tradition, these turtles are descendants of evil spirits (djinn) who were cast into this shape because they incurred the wrath of the great saint who visited the place about 1100 years ago.
World war II Cemetery: In this well-preserved cemetery at quiet and picturesque place lie buried over 700 soldiers from commonwealth countries and Japan. The War Cemetery is located in a hillside sloping place, in the south-western corner of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, beside the Badshah Mia Road of the city. The total area of this cemetery is eight acres, which is protected and supervised by the Common wealth Graves Commission.
Ethnological Museum: A unique treasure house of variety of tribal culture and heritage of Bangladesh. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong was established in the first half of nineteen sixties. The museum contains four galleries and a small hall.
Baitul Falah The largest masjid in Chittagong.
Chandanpura Mosque: Situated in the old city, the multi domed mosque is an architectural sight to behold.
Chittagong College: Situated in the old city, is e of the oldest colleges in Bangladesh (estd 1869) and also one of the prestigious academy.
Court Building: Situated on the Fairy Hill, this building commands a magnificent bird's eye view of Chittagong city, particularly at night. This gigantic Judge Court building was built immediately after the East India Company conquered and declared Chittagong as a separate administrative area in 1773. The building is huge, over 250 thousand square feet and has hundreds of rooms.

Main Attractions Gallery

Karnaphuli Bridge

Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Chittagong Circuit House/Zia Memorial Museum

Chittagong Stadium


Patenga Sea Beach

Chittagong Court House

Foy's Lake Amuzement Park

A Buddhist Temple in Banderban.


A Prime tourist attraction, the mini Bangladesh attraction park consists of recreations of famous landmarks in the country as well as a 71 metre revolving restaurant.

Transport
Further information: Transport in Bangladesh
Ground
Transport in Chittagong is similar to that of the country's capital Dhaka. There are various bus systems, taxis, and as well as smaller 'Baby' or 'CNG' taxis which are basically tricycle-structured motor vehicles. Also, there are the traditional manual rickshaws which are very common.
Railway
Chittagong has a station on the narrow gauge eastern section of the Bangladesh Railway. The headquarters of this railway are located here.
Air
Shah Amanat International Airport serves as Chittagong's international airport. It is the 2nd busiest in Bangladesh. It has international services to destinations such as Dubai, Kolkata, Yangon, Muscat and Bangkok. It was formerly known as MA Hannan International Airport, but was renamed on April 2, 2005 by the Government of Bangladesh. Major airlines that serve the airport include Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Thai Airways International, GMG Airlines, and Oman Air.


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