Bandarban • Brahmanbaria • Chandpur • Chittagong • Comilla • Cox's Bazar • Feni • Khagrachari • Lakshmipur • Noakhali • Rangamati
23.9528° N 91.1167° E
BST ( UTC+6 )
Population ( 1991 )
- Literacy rate
Brahmanbaria ( Bengali : ???????????????? Bramhonbaria ) is a district in east-central Bangladesh . It is a part of the Chittagong Division .
- 1 Geography
- 2 Administrative units
- 3 Culture
- 4 History
- 5 Economy
- 6 Prominent educational institutions
- 7 Places of Interest
- 8 See also
- 9 Reference
- 10 External links
Brahmanbaria district is located at the east-central region of Bangladesh . It has a total area of 1927.11 km². Brahmanbaria is bounded by Kishoreganj District and Habiganj District on the north, Comilla District on the south, Habiganj District and Tripura State, India on the east and Meghna River , Kishoreganj District , Narsingdi District and Narayanganj District on the west.
The geography of the district is characterized by low-lying land with small hills and hillocks of red soil. Annual highest average temperature 34.3 °C and lowest 12.7 °C. Total annual rainfall is 2551 mm. The main rivers of the district are the Meghna River , and the Titas River .
Brahmanbaria district is divided into eight Upazillas (previously known as Thanas). These are:
- Brahmanbaria Sadar Upazila
- Nasirnagar Upazila
- Nabinagar Upazila
- Sarail Upazila
- Kasba Upazila
- Akhaura Upazila
- Bancharampur Upazila
Brahmanbaria has a rich tradition of the cultivation of art, education and culture. It is often figuratively called the cultural capital of Bangladesh . To the field of literature the contributions of Adyta Mallavarman, Jotirindra Nandi, Abdul Kadir, Fazal Shahabuddin are remarkable. The town also represents a rich tradition of musical endeavor. Ustad Allauddin Khan , the great musical talent of the sub continent and the father of 'Maihar Gharana' of Classical Indian music, was born in this district in 1862. Others who contributed to the arena of music from Brahmanbaria significantly are: Ustad Fakir (Tapas) Aftab Uddin Khan, Ustad Ayet Ali Khan, Ustad Ali Akbor Khan, Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan, Ustad Abed Hussain Khan, Ustad Khadem Hussain Khan, Ustad Raja Hussain Khan, Amar Paul, Ustad Khurshid Khan, Subal Das, Syed Abdul Hadi and Ustad Afjalur Rahman. Ustad Ayet Ali Khan established the Alauddin Music College in Brahmanbaria in 1957 and Shilpacharya Joinul Abedin established the Alauddin Sangitayan in 1975. Mohirshe Monomohan Datta is also a remarkable name for his special "Molaya" music. Mr. Umesh Chandra Roy was one of the greatest musician of Alauddin Music institute. Al Mahmud , one of the leading poets of modern Bengali, was born in Brahmanbaria in 1936.
Brahmanbaria was a part of Samatata Janapada of the ancient Bengal . The first and temporary capital of Isa Khan was at Sarail, located at 10 km north of Brahmanbaria Town . Brahmanbaria was made one of the 3 Sub-divisions of Comilla District by the British rulers in 1860.Brahmanbaria Municipality was established in 1868.It became part of East Pakistan in 1947 which eventually became independent Bangladesh in 1971. During the Mughal era, Brahmanbaria was famous for producing quality cloth Muslin .
During 19th century, Brahmanbaria produced great nationalist leaders like Nawab Syed Shamsul Huda, who became president of All India Muslim League in 1921, and Barrister Abdur Rasul, a front ranking leader of Indian National Congress . When the swadeshi movement began in the wake of the partition of Bengal (1905), Brahmanbaria born revolutionary Ullaskar Datta (Aviram) was convicted for throwing bomb explosion and was deported to the Andamans. On 14 December 1931 Suniti Chowdhury, Shanti Ghosh and Gopal Deb killed the then District magistrate CCB Stevens at his residence by gunshot. During the peasant movement in 1930, Congress leader Abdul Hakim asked the peasant to stop payment of taxes. During the no-rent movement four civilians were killed when the British soldiers indiscriminately fired on civilians.
Upon encouragement of Oli Ahad , a pioneer Language Movement leader who hailed from Brahmanbaria, the movement obtained momentum in this district in 1952.During the War of Liberation in 1971, Bir Srestha Mohammad Mostafa Kamal was killed in an encounter at Daruin of Akhaura.
Religious composition (1991) : Muslim - 90.73%, Hindu - 9.07%, Buddhist - 0.05%, Christian - 0.04% and Others - 0.11%.
- Main occupations: Agriculture 44.79%, agricultural labourer 15.82%, wage labourer 3.13%, commerce 12.26%, service 6.8%, fishing 2.02% and transport 1.85%, weaving 2.39% and others 10.94%.
- Land Use: Total cultivable land 1,522.80 km²; fallow land 7 km²; single crop 28.38%, double crop 53.95% and triple crop land 17.67%; land under irrigation 55.31%.
- Land Control: Among the peasants 11% are landless, 61% small, 24% intermediate and 4% rich; cultivable land 700 m² per head.
- Value of land: The market value of the land of the first grade is 8000 Taka per 100 m².
- Main crops: Paddy, jute , wheat , mustard seed , potato , onion , garlic , chili , pulses , brinjal , kakrol and patal . Kakrol produced in Mukundopur of this district deserves special mention.
- Extinct or nearly extinct crops are linseed , sesame, tobacco , Chaplaish and Kataktara varieties of paddy, arahar and kaun.
- Main Fruits: Mango , jackfruit, black berry , papaya , coconut , guava , olive , lemon , bilimbi and banana .
- Fisheries/Dairies/Poultries: Poultry 83, fishery 64, dairy 61, hatchery 43, nursery 17 and artificial breeding centre 1.
- Communication Facilities:Roads- pucca 266 km, semi pucca 86 km and mud road 1629 km; waterways 131- nautical miles; railways- 71 km.Brahmanbaria Station,renovated in 2004, is one of the busiest Railway Station in Dhaka-Chittagong and Dhaka-Sylhet line. Akhaura Junction is the biggest railway junction in eastern part of Bangladesh .
- Manufacture: Fertiliser factory, flour mill, rice mill, ice factory, oil mill, saw mill, welding, etc. Zia Fertilizer , the biggest fertilizer factory of Bangladesh is located by the bank of Meghna at Ashuganj , Brahmanbaria.
- Minerals: Titas Gas , the most prominent gas field of Bangladesh which supplies natural gas to capital Dhaka ,is located in Brahmanbaria.
- Cottage Industries: Brahmanbaria district is famous for the production of cotton fabrics. In the nineteenth century Tanjeb, fine quality muslin, used to be produced in Sarail. Hats, made of cane, are being produced at Radhika from the British period. Since Brahmanbaria has a rich tradition of boat race, boats are being made at Champanagar. Other cottage industries include weaving, such bamboo work, cane work, handicraft, goldsmith, blacksmith, woodwork, potteries and tailoring.
Prominent educational institutions
- Kalikaccha Pathshala High School , Sarail,Kalikaccha
- kalikaccha Uttar Govt.Primary school,Kalikaccha
- Brahmanbaria College
- Brahmanbaria Women College
- Annada Government High School
- Sabera Sobhan Girls High School
- Niaz Mohammad High School
- Brahmanbaria High School
- Sarail Annada High School
- Crescent Kinder Garten
- Kheora Anandamayee High School
Places of Interest
Places of interest in Brahmanbaria District are as below:
- Deity of Shiva at Kal Bhairab Temple at Medda (Early 19th century)
- Jame Mosque of Sarail (1662)
- Shrine of Kella Shahid at Kharampur (Early 18th century)
- Tofael-Azam Memorial Tower at the City Centre (1958)
- Korolia Khal
- Sree Sree Anandamayee Asrom, Kheora, Kasba